2020-08-05 10:43 来源:福建炎黄纵横 作者:福建省非遗中心、省炎黄文化研究会


6.非物质文化遗产有哪些基本特点?


答:(一)独特性。非物质文化遗产一般是作为艺术或文化的表现形式而存在的,体现了特定民族、国家或地域内的人民独特的创造力,或表现为物质的成果,或表现为具体的行为方式、礼仪、习俗,这些都具有各自的独特性、唯一性和不可再生性。 

(二)活态性。非物质文化遗产重视人的价值,重视活的、动态的、精神的因素,重视技术、技能的高超、精湛和独创性,重视人的创造力,以及通过非物质文化遗产反映出来的该民族的情感及表达方式、传统文化的根源、智慧、思维方式和世界观、价值观、审美观等这些意义和价值的因素。非物质文化遗产的表现、传承都需要语言和行为,都是动态的过程。

(三)传承性。从历时性来看,非物质文化遗产的传承主要依靠世代相传保留下来,而且往往是口传心授,一旦停止了传承活动,也就意味着死亡。

(四)流变性。从共时性来看,非物质文化遗产或通过一方有意识地学习、另一方悉心传授,或通过老百姓之间自发地相互学习等方式得以流传到其他民族、国家和区域,这就导致了非物质文化遗产的传播。

(五)综合性。非物质文化遗产是各个时代生活的有机组成部分,它是一定时代、环境、文化和时代精神的产物,必然与当时的社会生活有着千丝万缕的关系。它基本上是集体的创造,从而与局限于专业或专家的文化拉开了距离,这就导致了它的综合性,有许多非物质文化遗产常常是与物质文化遗产联系在一起的。

(六)民族性。民族性是指为某一民族独有,深深地打上了该民族的烙印,体现了特定民族的独特的思维方式、智慧、世界观、价值观、审美意识、情感表达等因素。

(七)地域性。非物质文化遗产通常都是在一定的地域产生的,与该环境息息相关,该地域独特的自然生态环境、文化传统、宗教、信仰、生产、生活水平,以及日常生活习惯、习俗等决定了其特点和传承;离开了该地域,便失去了其赖以存在的土壤和条件,也谈不上保护、传承和发展。

 

Q6: What are the basic features of intangible cultural heritage?

Answer: (a) Uniqueness: intangible cultural heritage usually exists as manifestation of arts or culture, reflects the unique creativity of the people of specific nations, countries or regions, and it may be in the forms of tangible outcome or behavior styles, ceremonies and customs, which are all distinct, unique and nonrenewable.

(b) Living state: intangible cultural heritage attaches great importance to human value, to living, dynamic and spiritual factors, to exquisiteness and ingenuity of technology and skills, to human creativity, and to the elements reflecting a nation’s emotion and expression style and the root, wisdom, thinking manner, world view, value and aesthetics related to their traditional culture. The presentation and inheritance of intangible cultural heritage both require language and behavior, and they are dynamic processes.

(c) Inheritance: from the diachronic point of view, inheritance of intangible cultural heritage mainly relies on transmission from generation to generation and, particularly, by way of oral teaching that inspires true understanding, and the termination of such inheritance activities would declare the death of specific intangible cultural heritage.

(d) Evolvement: from the synchronic point of view, dissemination of intangible cultural heritage to other nations, countries and regions may be achieved either by way of conscious teaching and learning activities or spontaneous mutual learning among different communities.

(e) Comprehensiveness: intangible cultural heritage is an organic component of life activities in each period of times, being outcome of the environment, culture and spirit in specific times, and it is related to the social life in one way or the other. Intangible cultural heritage is fundamentally created by the group and is distinct from the achievement restricted to specialized subjects or experts, which contributes to its comprehensiveness. Many intangible cultural heritages are usually related to tangible cultural heritages.

(f) Nationality: nationality demonstrates the character of specifically belonging to a certain nation, and it is reflected in the nation’s unique way of thinking, wisdom, world view, value, aesthetics, and expression of emotion.

(g) Regionalism: intangible cultural heritage is usually created in a specific region and tied to its environment. The special natural environment and ecology, cultural traditions, religions, beliefs, standards of production and living, day to day living habits, and customs all together determine the features and inheritance of intangible cultural heritage. Departure from such regions, intangible cultural heritage will lose the soil and conditions where it pins its life, not to mention its protection, inheritance and development.

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泉州、厦门高甲戏

(图片来源于福建省群众艺术馆——省非遗中心官网)